March 26 2014
Mangosteen is a fruit grown in Thailand and Myanmar whose rind (the mangosteen pericarp) appears to have some medicinal properties. The hull of the mangosteen fruit has been used for many years in Southeast Asia as a medicine for skin infection, wounds, and diarrhea, and recently other interesting properties of mangosteen are slowly being revealed. However, human trials are not available regarding mangosteen juice or mangosteen supplement, therefore we don't know the benefit of mangosteen in clinical practice until studies are completed.
What's in the fruit?
Mangosteen fruit has a number of compounds, the most prominent being xanthones, a group of compounds that have antioxidant and other potent physiological properties. Several compounds appear to be active, particularly xanthones. Some of these xanthones include mangostin, mangostenol, mangostenone A, mangostenone B, trapezifolixanthone, tovophyllin B, alpha- and beta-mangostins, garcinone B, mangostinone, mangostanol, and the flavonoid epicatechin.
Mangosteen pill 500 mg (whole fruit and rind)
Made from the highest quality ORGANIC mangosteen fruit material available, direct from Thailand. The actual active ingredients, xanthones, are mostly in the mangosteen rind and seed, and less in the mangosteen fruit flesh. We use the whole mangosteen fruit - rind, seed and flesh - in order to provide you with the full spectrum of xanthones. There are about 20 different xanthones in the whole fruit. Ninety-five percent of this mangosteen product is rind and seed.
Mangosteen 500 mg
(Garcinia mangostana whole fruit, 95 percent is pericarp or rind)
purchase Mangosteen on sale
Suggested use: As a dietary supplement, take one mangosteen
or as recommended by your health care provider.
Benefit of Mangosteen
At this point almost all studies with mangosteen have been done in a laboratory and there is little human research to indicate how mangosteen supplements or mangosteen juice would influence the prevention or therapy of various cancers, including breast, lung, and liver, or what other benefit the compounds in mangosteen, such as xanthones, would have when ingested as a supplement. If you come across claims that mangosteen has been proven to have health benefit in humans, be skeptical. It may be true, but until actual long term human trials are done, we cannot be certain about mangosteen benefits or side effects. See also acai berry information.
What does the research say?
Mangosteen has compounds with antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-tumor activity. Laboratory testing thus far indicates that extracts of mangosteen have activity against several cancer cell lines including breast, liver, and leukemia. Mangosteen also appears to have anti-histamine and anti-inflammatory properties.
Benefit of Mangosteen Fruit versus the
Most of the studies with mangosteen have focused on the pericarp, or the dark, woody rind as opposed to the fruit inside the woody rind. The pericarp contains the active xanthone compounds. The fruit itself probably has some beneficial compounds but the compounds within the mangosteen fruit have not been studied as well as the mangosteen rind.
Antiproliferative activity of Thai medicinal plant extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line.
Ethanolic extracts of selected nine Thai medicinal plants were tested for antiproliferative activity against SKBR3 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line using MTT assay. Mangosteen showed the most potent activity.
Antiproliferation, antioxidation and induction of
apoptosis by mangosteen on SKBR3 human breast cancer
J Ethnopharmacol. 2004.
This study was designed to determine the antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidative properties of crude methanolic extract from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana using human breast cancer (SKBR3) cell line as a model system. SKBR3 cells were cultured in the presence of mangosteen extract at various concentrations. Mangosteen showed a dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. We found that antiproliferative effect of mangosteen was associated with apoptosis on breast cancer cell line by determinations of morphological changes and oligonucleosomal DNA fragments. In addition, mangosteen at various concentrations and incubation times were also found to inhibit ROS production. These investigations suggested that the mangosteen extract had strong antiproliferation, potent antioxidation and induction of apoptosis. Thus, it indicates that mangosteen extract has potential for cancer chemoprevention which is dose dependent as well as exposure time dependent.
Antioxidant xanthones from the pericarp of Mangosteen
J Agric Food Chem. 2006. Jung HA, Su BN, Keller WJ, Mehta RG, Kinghorn AD.
Division of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio
Garcinia mangostana was selected for detailed study. Repeated chromatography of a CH2Cl2-soluble extract of the pericarp led to the isolation of two new highly oxygenated prenylated xanthones, 8-hydroxycudraxanthone G and mangostingone trihydroxyxanthone, together with 12 known xanthones, cudraxanthone G, 8-deoxygartanin, garcimangosone B, garcinone D, garcinone E, gartanin, 1-isomangostin, alpha-mangostin, gamma-mangostin, mangostinone, smeathxanthone A, and tovophyllin A.
Antimicrobial effects of Thai medicinal plants against acne-inducing
J Ethnopharmacol. 2005.
Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis have been recognized as pus-forming bacteria triggering an inflammation in acne. The present study was conducted to evaluate antimicrobial activities of Thai medicinal plants against these etiologic agents of acne vulgaris. Crude extracts were tested for antimicrobial activities by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. The results from the disc diffusion method showed that 13 medicinal plants could inhibit the growth of Propionibacterium acnes. Among those, Senna alata, Eupatorium odoratum, Garcinia mangostana, and Barleria lupulina had strong inhibitory effects. Our data indicated that Garcinia mangostana had a strong inhibitory effect on Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Therefore, mangosteen would be an interesting topic for further study and possibly for an alternative treatment for acne.
Induction of apoptosis by xanthones from
mangosteen in human leukemia cell lines.
J Nat Prod. 2003.
We examined the effects of six xanthones from the pericarps of mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana, on the cell growth inhibition of human leukemia cell line HL60. All xanthones in mangosteen displayed growth inhibitory effects. Among them, alpha-mangostin showed complete inhibition at 10 microM through the induction of apoptosis.
Inhibition of cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin E2
synthesis by gamma-mangostin, a xanthone derivative in mangosteen, in C6
rat glioma cells.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2002 Jan 1;63(1):73-9.
In the present study, we examined the effect of gamma-mangostin, a tetraoxygenated diprenylated xanthone contained in mangosteen, on arachidonic acid cascade in C6 rat glioma cells. This study is a first demonstration that gamma-mangostin, a xanthone derivative from mangosteen, directly inhibits COX activity.
Evaluation of the antifungal activity of natural
xanthones from Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) and their synthetic derivatives.
J Nat Prod. 1997.
The antifungal activity of several xanthones isolated from the fruit hulls of mangosteen and some derivatives of mangostin against three phytopathogenic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum vasinfectum, Alternaria tenuis, and Dreschlera oryzae, has been evaluated. The natural xanthones from mangosteen showed good inhibitory activity against the three fungi.
Active constituents against HIV-1 protease from
Planta Med. 1996.
The ethanol extract of Mangosteen showed potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1 protease. The activity-guided purification of the extract resulted in the isolation of two active, known compounds. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were established by spectroscopic analyses as mangostin and gamma-mangostin.
Mangostin inhibits the oxidative modification of
human low density lipoprotein.
Free Radic Res. 1995.
The oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) may play an important role in atherosclerosis. We investigated the possible antioxidant effects of mangosteen, isolated from Garcinia mangostana, on metal ion dependent (Cu2+) and independent (aqueous peroxyl radicals) oxidation of human LDL. From these results, we conclude that mangosteen is acting as a free radical scavenger to protect the LDL from oxidative damage in this in vitro system.
More Mangosteen information - The various forms of mangosteen sold
The active xanthones are in the pericarp (husk), and not the mangosteen fruit. Mangosteen powder is sometimes added in juices to provide more xanthones to the juice mix. This "thickens" the mixture and adds more body. All mangosteen juice sellers refer to "shake" the bottle before drinking to mix the powder with the juice.
Mangosteen Extract - There are two common mangosteen extracts; alcohol extract and water based extracts. The extracts add more xanthones to the drink mixes which is the active ingredient in mangosteen.
Mangosteen Fruit Puree:
Whole mangosteen fruit is crushed and some water is added for pouring, and then put into plastic containers, frozen and then shipped from Thailand. Companies then add other fruit juices to improve taste.
Mangosteen Juice Concentrate:
This is "just add water" concentrate mix with only tropical fruit contents, No preservatives, No artificial colors, etc.
Mangosteen as breath freshener
Effects of herbal mouthwash containing the pericarp extract of Garcinia mangostana L on halitosis, plaque and papillary bleeding index.
J Int Acad Periodontol. 2007. Department of Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
To determine the effects of herbal mouthwash containing the pericarp extract of Carcinia mangostana L on volatile sulfur compound levels, plaque index and papillary bleeding index in gingivitis subjects and the recurrence of these parameters after periodontal treatment. Sixty subjects who were diagnosed as having mild or moderate chronic gingivitis were randomly distributed into mangosteen rind or placebo mouthwash groups. CONCLUSION: Herbal mouthwash containing the mangosteen pericarp extract may be used as an adjunct in treating oral malodor.
Mangosteen press release
A recent in-vitro study entitled "Garcina mangostana Liquid Dietary Supplement Mango-xan: Its Anti-Inflammatory Effects" showed Mango-xan Antioxidant Recovery Formula from Pure Fruit Technologies to significantly reduce cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) enzymes. A considerable amount of research has established that COX-2 and 5-LOX enzymes are elevated during pain and inflammation. The study was presented as part of the American Chemical Society's 233rd National Meeting and Exposition held March 25 - 29, 2007 in Chicago, IL. "This study confirms that Mango-xan may have an anti-inflammatory effect as a result of its dual inhibitory effect on both COX-2 and 5-LOX enzymes," stated Wayne Geilman, Ph.D., senior research scientist, Pure Fruit Technologies. "Future steps include conducting a human clinical trial to determine the dosage needed to elicit these results." Using established protocols, both COX-2 and LOX-5 enzymes from human cells were isolated. The cells were then exposed to Mango-xan in different concentrations=. COX-2 enzymes were inhibited by 97 percent when exposed to the 1 percent Mango-xan concentration, 97 percent by the 2.5 percent concentration and 94 percent by the 5 percent concentration. 5-LOX enzymes were reduced by 98 percent, 100 percent and 100 percent respectively.
Pure Fruit Technologies' products are made from the whole fruit and are sold wholesale to health food retailers and distributors worldwide, as well as direct-to-consumers online. The American Chemical Society is a self-governed individual membership organization that consists of more than 158,000 members at all degree levels and in all fields of chemistry. The organization provides a broad range of opportunities for peer interaction and career development, regardless of professional or scientific interests. The programs and activities conducted by ACS today are the products of a tradition of excellence in meeting member needs that dates from the Society's founding in 1876.
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Mangosteen Juice and Fruit emails
Q. I would like to know how the mangosteen capsule compares to the juice.
A. The mangosteen capsules are pure mangosteen including the rind which has most of the active xanthones while the mangosteen juice has mostly the fruit and other fruit juices. Mangosteen capsules and mangosteen juice are different but there are no studies that compare the two in humans so it is difficult to say which is the healthier to take in the long.
Q. Is the mangosteen
product an extract, or the real fruit? Is it organic? Also, my husband has
c. pneumoniea (mycoplasma) bacteria associated with CFS, and is on long
term antibiotics, and has been on 10 oz a day of Xango mangosteen. Can he
take 6 pills or so to equal the equivalent in Mangosteen juice? Have you
had any experience as to whether the pills at higher doses, can actually
kill the bacteria, like mycoplasm, as effectively as an antibiotic? Do you
have any 'testimonials' about your mangosteen pills?
A. We have no idea what the equivalence would be between the mangosteen capsules and the juice. There are dozens of different manufacturers and they each mix mangosteen juice with various other fruit juices (to make it more palatable), so we basically would be comparing apples and oranges. By the way, the other juices would have health benefits, too.
Both mangosteen / fruit juices and mangosteen powder in capsules are likely to be beneficial, but one can't say over the long run which is better. We don't know whether high doses of mangosteen can kill bacteria in the body since such human studies have not been done. This mangosteen product is organic.
Q. Someone told me that mangosteen
has a short shelf life. (they also want me to buy their xango product) any
merit to this?
A. Most herbal constituents have a very long half life and can stay active for many years or even decades is stored properly. We have no evidence that mangosteen is any different.
Q. For personal use, I am not interested in using a mangosteen juice but in
capsules mainly consisting of the pericarp. In view of this, I would appreciate
to have more information on the mangosteen product provided by you, e.g. on the
orac value per pill, etc. Looking at some of the products available on the
market I was struck by the exceptional high orac value attributed to a product
which, according to ayurceutics, would have been obtained though an extraction
process with water and alcohol. Since xanthones are not well soluble in water. I
have been wondering whether the high orac value of 2150 would be completely due
to the products derived from the pericarp.
A. We have not done ORAC values on our product. We think ORAC values are overrated and do not give a true prcture of the benefits of a product. Xanthones act in a variety of ways besides antioxidants. Relying mostly on antioxidant values misses the overall influence of these substances on the whole body.
Q. I am wanting to purchase the following product for a friend who has
cancer: Mangosteen capsules, supplement, xanthones from whole fruit, thai
mangosteen juice and drink alternative. She is currently drinking a bottle of
mangosteen juice per day in her battle and in New Zealand that equals $50/day
which can't afford. Could you let me know how many of the suppliment capsules
would be the equivalent to a bottle of xango juice, or give me an idea of the
maximum that has been taken in trials on the suppliment itself. I need to know
how much to order for her for a two month period. Many thanks. I hope you can
help me in some way.
A. It is difficult to say since different mangosteen juice products are different in teir potency, but a rough guess would be to start with 4 or 5 capsules a day and increase as needed and tolerated and approved by her doctor. We wish her well.
Nutrients in mangosteen fruit
Mangosteen fruit packed with antioxidant xanthones, and it tastes so good that it has been likened to vanilla ice cream. Often eaten simply as a dessert because of the exquisite taste, mangosteen has been helping people for centuries with its potent health benefits. In fact, it has been used as a health supplement for hundreds of years. Now, it has taken the modern health and functional food industry by storm as more people clamor for the use of Mangosteen in functional beverages and nutritional supplements. Mangosteen has been found to contain dozens of xanthones, which are mostly concentrated in the pericarp. Each of these chemically beneficial molecules has their own specific qualities, and no other known plant offers the same quantity and variety of xanthones as Mangosteen. Mangosteen is also rich in vitamins and minerals such as vitamin C, B1, B2, B6, iron, fiber, protein, calcium, phosphorous, potassium, catechins/tannins and niacin. Mangosteen Products: Mangosteen Deluxe Juice Concentrate, which is great for functional beverages. Mangosteen Super Orac Powder, ideal for encapsulation and supplements, and Mangosteen 10:1, which is a water-soluble powder extract for tasty, ready-to-drink smoothie mixes.