Choline side effects, dosage 250 mg, 350 mg
and 500 mg pill, should pregnant women
use this product, are there any health concerns?
What is the latest information as far as benefits and side effects?
March 7 2014
is an essential nutrient required by the body to make several important compounds necessary for
healthy cell membranes. It helps form phosphatidylcholine, the
primary phospholipid of cell membranes. Choline is also the precursor to acetylcholine,
one of the important brain chemicals involved in
memory. This nutrient, usually as part of phosphatidylcholine, is widely available in a number of foods, particularly eggs, fish,
legumes, nuts, and meats and vegetables, as well as in human breast milk. Dietary intake
of choline ranges from 300 to 900 mg a day. Most individuals who have a normal diet are
not deficient in choline. Its importance was emphasized in 1998 when the
National Academy of Sciences classified it as an essential nutrient. In the past, it was
thought that the human body made adequate amounts when needed. However, a study by Dr.
Steven Zeisel, from the Department of Nutrition at the University of North Carolina at
Chapel Hill, demonstrated that volunteers on a choline deficient diet were not able to
produce enough of this nutrient.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommends that men and women consume 550 milligrams and 425 milligrams, respectively, of choline each day to prevent liver dysfunction. Yet, nearly one in five individuals in may need much more choline -- up to 800 milligrams a day -- to prevent or reverse the damage caused by a deficiency of this nutrient.
Purchase Choline Bitartrate dosage 500 mg
Several studies have been done in humans in order to evaluate memory function. The results have been mixed with some showing positive results (Sitaran 1978) while others indicating no improvement. Choline has also been tested in bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depression. When six patients already on lithium were given choline bitartrate, five of them had a substantial reduction in manic symptoms. For more choline information.
Choline side effects, safety
A common side effect of choline ingestion is increased body temperature and sweating. Nausea and loss of appetite can result from very high doses. Most people notice having more focus and being more alert. A positive effect is that it helps with erections. Trimethylglycine has three methyl groups whereas choline has four methyl groups.
Choline supplement availability
Choline is sold in dosages ranging from 250 to 500 mg and in a number of forms including choline bitartrate, chloride, and citrate. Choline Bitartrate, 500 mg, Nature's Way is a good brand, so is the brand from Physician Formulas.
Choline and Pregnancy, should pregnant
women take the supplement?
According to the results of several studies in rats, providing choline during pregnancy enhances memory and learning capacity in the fetus (Williams 1998). Dr. Christina Williams, a behavioral neuroscientist at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, says her study findings demonstrate, "That supplementation with choline during the last third of pregnancy has fairly dramatic and long-lasting effects on the memory of offspring." A 1997 study published in Advances in Pediatrics by Dr. Zeisel showed that choline reserves are depleted during pregnancy and lactation (Zeisel 1997). This depletion may affect normal brain development and memory in the offspring. The National Academy of Sciences suggests that pregnant women consume at least 450 milligrams of choline per day.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2013. Choline intake influences
phosphatidylcholine DHA enrichment in nonpregnant women but not in pregnant
women in the third trimester.
Recommendations and review
Individuals whose diet includes a wide variety of foods are not likely to suffer from choline deficiency. Growing infants, pregnant or lactating women, and individuals with liver cirrhosis may potentially be deficient. Whether choline supplements benefit older individuals with age related memory decline has not yet been adequately determined. Because of its relative safety, and potential benefits, I recommend small amounts of choline in the elderly who have age related cognitive decline. See chapter 18 for specific recommendations. Choline can be taken occasionally by younger individuals on days when better concentration and focus would be helpful.
Choline is derived not only from the diet but the liver has the ability to make it. It is used to make membrane phospholipids and to make acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter. Betaine, a metabolite of choline, is an important methyl group donor used in the remethylation of homocysteine to form methionine. When deprived of dietary choline and betaine, most adult men and postmenopausal women develop a deficiency syndrome characterized by signs of organ dysfunction (fatty liver as well as liver or muscle cell death).
I don't have a choline deficiency. Is there any danger in combining a choline supplement pills with
banaba extract or the green food
A. Not if the dosages are kept low.
I have heard that taking choline can help some people with liver problems. My problem is my local DR's and I have been unable to locate someone or some place that can conduct a blood test that will measure a serum choline level to identify if there is a deficiency. I have been told that one should find out if there is a deficiency before starting to take a choline supplement.
Choline deficiency is extremely rare and may occur in those who have malnutrition or are eating a very restrictive diet. Testing for choline in the blood is unlikely to reveal any information that would be clinically helpful. Anyone with suspected liver problems should have blood liver function tests and if abnormal, further studies can be done to determine the problem and course of action.
THE MEMORY NUTRIENTS ó Choline
and Phospholipids from the book Mind
and Memory Boosters
Choline is the precursor to acetylcholine, the brain chemical involved with memory. A new and more activated form of choline, called CDP-choline, became available in the US in 1998.
What Benefits Do Choline and Phospholipids Provide?
Individuals who donít have a good dietary intake of phospholipids may find that taking these nutrients leads to an improvement in learning and memory. Most young and healthy people who take phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylserine are not likely to notice any significant changes, although supplements could help some seniors. The effects from choline, and its cousin CDP choline, are more noticeable.
Which Conditions Can Choline and Phospholipids Benefit?
The clinical application of these nutrients has not yet been fully evaluated, but scientists have studied their role in age related cognitive decline, Alzheimerís disease, and Parkinsonís disease. No firm conclusions are yet available as to whether phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine help these conditions. Choline and CDP-choline could potentially be beneficial in ARCD and Alzheimerís disease.
The Making of Phospholipids
In order to better understand how the nutrients in this chapter work, it helps to know how they are related to each other. As you can see from figure 8.1, PS can be converted into PC. Choline converts into CDP-choline and then PC. All of the nutrients listed in this figure, except for acetylcholine, are available over the counter as supplements. Acetylcholine is a brain chemical, among various other functions, involved in memory and learning.
Q. There is a health drink which is being launched which claims to have 20% RDA as per US FDA and 20% of B vitamins and Iodine. I have read on your website that choline is good for the memory and can even enhance sexual function. Now do you think consumption of this drink will have such stimulating effect on children? and will they have sleep disturbances if they drink it during bed time?
A. Most supplements, unless they cause sedation, are best taken in the morning. It is difficult to predict the reaction in any one child, but if the dosage is very high it may have a stimulating nature but since most children are very active the effects may not be noticed. The best way to find out is to start with low dosages and see what effects occur.
I understand that choline can help with
sexual enhancement or erectile function, can it be taken along with
There could be elevated body heat and sweating with the combination.
Are there serious risks involved with
mixing choline and
tyrosine? I'm currently taking tyrosine and from what I can
tell, it doesn't convert into acetylcholine. I suffer from low motivation and
the tyrosine's effects aren't evident anymore. I'm also alternating supplementation of 5-htp and tryptophan to balance serotonin levels.
Much depends on your personal brain chemistry and the dosage and timing of the supplements.
I am aware that you cannot offer
medical advice over the internet so, instead, I will ask if you know of any
studies that have been performed with the use of choline and children? My son is
three and is XYY. He is experiencing memory (and thus learning) difficulties,
has low muscle tone issues, and is very thin. I've read a lot about
acetylcholine and it seems my son's body would greatly benefit from it since it
is converted into acetylcholine.
We have not seen such studies yet, but if his doctor approves one could start with a small portion of a capsule.