capsules are also known as
citicoline - we review a discussion of cdp-choline side effects and benefits for
brain enhancement and mental improvement including memory and concentration
CDP-choline stands for cytidine 5-diphosphocholine, an intermediate in the biosynthesis of membrane phospholipids and brain acetylcholine. CDP-choline is approved in Europe and Japan for use in stroke, Parkinsons disease and other neurological disorders and is sold with the brand name Citicoline. In a way, you could consider CDP-choline as more potent form of Choline. Studies show that it helps make phosphatidylcholine in human brain cell membranes in older individuals; may increase acetylcholine synthesis; improves mental performance in patients with Alzheimer's disease; and even improves memory in elderly patients with memory deficits. A Belgian study has shown that CDP-choline administration to dogs improves their ability to learn and remember.
Buy CDP-Choline pill, 250 mg pill, 60 Capsules
Stabilized CDP-Choline is a naturally occurring, water soluble biological compound that is an essential intermediate for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, a major constituent of the grey matter of brain tissue (30%). CDP choline is metabolized to yield the free nucleotide cytidine and choline. Scientific research demonstrates that consumption promotes brain metabolism by enhancing the synthesis of acetylcholine, restoring phospholipid content in the brain and regulation of neuronal membrane excitability and osmolarity (by its effect on the ATP-dependent sodium and potassium pumps).
If you wish to buy CDP-Choline pill supplement 250 mg capsules
A doctor's experience
Dr. Vittorio Porciatti at the Institute of Neurophysiology in Pisa, Italy, tells me, "CDP-choline is commercially produced in Europe under several product names. Neurologists have found this nutrient useful in Parkinsons disease, brain trauma, and aging in general. It may surprise you that I mention Parkinsons disease. In addition to the understandable action on cell membranes, we have been somehow surprised that CDP-choline has dopamine-like effects. Interestingly, dopaminergic-like activity seems to be long lasting, possibly due to stabilization of the effects at membrane level."
The administration of oral CDP-choline may be of use in reversing age-related changes in the brain. CDP-choline helps to increase levels of
Availability in health food stores and on
CDP-choline became available over the counter in the US in 1998. Most pills come in a 250 mg dose. Another mind booster is Bacopa Monniera. An additional brain boosting herb to consider is Ginkgo Biloba.
CDP-Choline, 250 mg, 60 Capsules
Stabilized CDP-Choline (cytidine 5'diphosphocholine) is a naturally occurring, water soluble biological compound that is an essential intermediate for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, a major constituent of the grey matter of brain tissue (30%). CDP choline is metabolized to yield the free nucleotide cytidine and choline. Scientific research demonstrates that consumption promotes brain metabolism by enhancing the synthesis of acetylcholine, restoring phospholipid content in the brain and regulation of neuronal membrane excitability and osmolarity (by its effect on the ATP-dependent sodium and potassium pumps).
Safety of CDP-Choline, side effects
Toxicology studies show that CDP-choline is safe and produces no serious side effects in doses ranging from 500 mg to 1,000 mg a day (Secades 1995). However, most of the studies lasted less than a few weeks. Long-term safety is not known.
I want to report CDP-choline side effects when I took it with a tribulus terrestris extract pill. I felt very warm and restless. I think people should be aware of the interactions with other nutrients or herbs when combining them.
CDP-Choline personal use
Within an hour of taking a 250 pill CDP-choline pill on an empty stomach, wenotice being more alert and motivated. The effects last a few hours. In addition, colors seem brighter and sharper and occasionally we have noticed a libido enhancement. Because of the alertness it produces, we have difficulty sleeping if we take this nutrient in late afternoon or early evening.
Review and suggestions
CDP-choline has been used successfully in Europe for many years but clinical experience in the US is limited. This nutrient appears to have a more direct and immediate effect on the brain than its cousin choline. However, it is difficult to predict at this time the long-term benefits or risks of regular use. CDP-choline is a promising nutrient.
A Mind Booster Helpful After Strokes
Findings recently presented at the American Stroke Association's 27th International Stroke Conference indicate that CDP-choline may be helpful in reducing damage after a stroke. The most common cause of a stroke is blockage of a blood vessel within the brain, which leaves a portion of the organ starved for blood and oxygen. Bleeding within the brain can also lead to stroke. Much of the brain damage is caused by a cascade of harmful chemicals released by dying cells.
Researchers at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders in Bethesda, Maryland, reported data on two trials of the supplement citicoline, sold in some health food stores or on the internet as CDP-choline. This nutrient is related to choline. One of the studies involved 41 patients who received 500 milligrams of cdp-choline daily for 6 weeks after having a stroke. In the other, 62 stroke patients took 2,000 mg of the drug every day for 6 weeks. The trials also included 111 patients who received an inactive placebo. The researchers gauged the supplement’s effectiveness by measuring the size of the infarct, or area of dead tissue. They scanned patients' brains within 24 hours of the stroke and again 12 weeks later. At the end of the study period, the investigators found that infarct size measured by MRI scans had increased by 85% in patients on placebo, by 34% in patients receiving the 500 mg dose of cdp-choline and by only 2% in patients receiving 2,000 mg cdp-choline.
Comments: CDP-choline is a more powerful form of choline, and most users without a stroke notice an enhancement of mental focus, along with clarity of vision and thinking with as little as 200 mg.
Double-blind placebo-controlled study with citicoline in APOE genotyped Alzheimer's disease patients. Effects on cognitive performance, brain bioelectrical activity and cerebral perfusion.
EuroEspes Biomedical Research Center, A Coruna, Barcelona, Spain.
Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1999.
Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine is a an endogenous intermediate in the biosynthesis of structural membrane phospholipids and brain acetylcholine. CDP-cholinehas been extensively used for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders associated with head trauma, stroke, brain aging, cerebrovascular pathology and Alzheimer's disease. In this study we have investigated the efficacy and safety of the treatment with cdp-choline versus placebo in patients with Alzheimer disease. Thirty patients with mild to moderate senile dementia of the Alzheimer type were included in a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial. After a 2-week period of drug washout, patients were treated with i) placebo or ii) 1,000 mg/day of citicoline for 12 weeks (84 days). Examinations were done at baseline (T0) and after the 12 weeks of treatment (T12). As compared to placebo, cdp-choline improved cognitive performance in Alzheimer's disease patients with APOE E4; and this improvement on cognition was more pronounced. CDP-choline also increased cerebral blood flow velocities in comparison with placebo when transcranial Doppler recordings from both hemispheres were considered together, as well as diastolic velocity in the left middle cerebral artery. Patients treated with cdp-choline showed an increase in the percentage of brain bioelectrical activity of alpha (occipital electrodes) and theta type (left side electrodes), accompanied by a decrease in relative delta activity particularly marked in the left temporal lobe. Significant differences with respect to placebo were observed for theta activity in several fronto-parieto-temporal electrodes of the left hemisphere. Treatment with tended to reduce serum IL-1 beta levels, mainly after 4 weeks of administration, with no modified blood histamine content. In addition, neither adverse side effects nor alterations in biological and hematological parameters were induced by cdp-choline. The present data indicate that cdp-choline (1,000 mg/day) is well tolerated and improves cognitive performance, cerebral blood perfusion and the brain bioelectrical activity pattern in AD patients. According to our results, it seems that cdp-choline might be a useful treatment in Alzheimer's disease, and that the efficacy of this compound is greater in patients with mild mental deterioration and/or bearing the epsilon 4 allele of the APOE.
CDP-choline pill benefit questions
I'm 72 years old, female and in excellent health. On no medications. I am looking for something to enhance my memory. I am wondering if I would need just the choline or would CDP formula be better? CPD Choline is much more expensive. Would appreciate any input on something to improve my memory. I am taking Focus Complex right now and it does not seem to be doing a lot for me. I have been taking it for over a month now...two capsules a day. It is a Puritan's Pride product with Neuro-PS it says.
CDP-choline works better than choline by itself.