Acetylcarnitine for Alzheimer's disease, information, side effects, safety and caution, use for cognitive improvement in the young, middle aged, and older individuals
Alzeimer's disease treatment
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AcetylCarnitine 300 mg supplement for more information visit website by medical doctor Ray Sahelian, M.D.

Alzheimer's disease treatment, study
May be helpful in those with Alzheimer's disease, protects against amyloid-beta neurotoxicity.

Effects of acetyl carnitine in Alzheimer's disease patients unresponsive to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.
Bianchetti A. Geriatric Research Group, Brescia, Italy. Curr Med Res Opin. 2003.
Acetylcarnitine is a compound acting as an intracellular carrier of acetyl groups across inner mitochondrial membranes. It also appears to have neuroprotective properties and it has recently been shown to reduce attention deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) after long-term treatment. We performed an open study to evaluate the effect of acetyl carnitine (2 g/day orally for 3 months) in association with donepezil or rivastigmine in 23 patients with mild AD who had not responded to treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChE-I). Clinical effects were evaluated by assessing cognitive functions, functional status and behavioral symptoms. The response rate, which was 38% after AChE-I treatment, increased to 50% after the addition of acetylcarnitine, indicating that the combination of these two drugs may be a useful therapeutic option in AD patients.

The effect of acetylcarnitine and R-alpha-lipoic acid treatment in ApoE4 mouse as a model of human Alzheimer's disease.
J Neurol Sci. 2009; Shenk JC, Fischbach K, Xu K, Puchowicz M, Obrenovich ME, Gasimov E, Alvarez LM, Ames BN. Department of Biology and Electron Microscopy Research Center, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA.
Spatial memory and temporal memory tests showed a trend in improving cognitive function in ApoE4 mice fed selective mitochondrial antioxidants acetylcarnitine and R-alpha-lipoic acid. Our findings indicate that ApoE4 genotype-induced mitochondrial changes and associated structural damage may explain age-dependent pathology seen in AD, indicating potential for novel treatment strategies in the near future.

Acetylcarnitine side effects, safety, risks, adverse events, insomnia, overdose, toxicity
The mind boosting effect of acetylcarnitine is often noticed within a few hours, or even within an hour. Most people report feeling mentally sharper, having more focus and being more alert. Some find a mild mood enhancement. acetyllcarnitine may be used as an overall mind booster. The typical dosage is 250 to 500 mg once a day, preferably in the early part of the day. Side effects of overstimulation and nausea may occur at dosages greater than 300 to 500 mg, and insomnia or sleep problems when 500 mg is exceeded. These symptoms are more severe on overdose. We have not had reports or experiences of seizure yet on overdose.

Q. Is it okay to take acetylcarnitine daily for months and years?
   A. We are not sure if anybody knows the answer to the consequences of chronic acetylcarnitine intake. As with most supplements, we often recommend taking a break from use once in a while. We would also try to limit acetylcarnitine intake to 300 mg or less a few times a week to avoid adverse reactions that may occur with chronic use.

What you may notice when you take this supplement
Acetylcarnitine is a natural supplement which raises ATP levels and protects mitochondria. This nutrient has mind boosting potential. Users find that they think clearer and have more mental stamina. A combination of hoodia, ginger, cinnamon, green tea extract, spirulina, acetylcarnitine, choline, guggul, and several other herbs and nutrients, as found in Diet Rx, is a very effective herbal diet pill for appetite suppression. Users of Diet Rx are very satisfied.

Q. I plan to take acetylcarnitine as a mind booster. How quickly should I expect to notice an effect and what is a recommended dose? Does it also have other benefits?
   A. The mind boosting effect of acetylcarnitine is often noticed within a few hours, or less. Most people report feeling mentally sharper, having more focus and being more alert. I personally notice an effect within 2 hours. Studies in aging rats shows chronic administration of acetylcarnitine increases cholinergic synaptic transmission and consequently enhances learning capacity. The memory of aging rats is rejuvenated by giving them a combination of acetyl carnitine and lipoic acid. Acetylcarnitine may reduce alcohol-induced cellular damage to organs, be helpful in geriatric patients with mild depression, and protects against amyloid-beta neurotoxicity, which may be helpful in Alzheimer's disease. Most pills come in 250 or 500 mg. Many patients notice benefits at a dosage ranging from 100 to 500 mg taken a few minutes before breakfast. It's a good idea to take a break for a week or so each month.

Mechanism of action
Acetylcarnitine and carnitine play several important roles in the human body. These nutrients shuttle acetyl groups and fatty acids into mitochondria for energy production. Without carnitine, fatty acids cannot easily enter into mitochondria. The acetyl group of acetylcarnitine is used to form acetyl-CoA, the most important intermediary in the generation of energy from amino acids, fats, and carbohydrates. Therefore, acetylcarnitine serves as an energy reservoir of acetyl groups and both acetylcarnitine and carnitine help improve energy production. The acetyl group of acetyl carnitine is also used to make the important brain chemical acetylcholine. Some studies suggest that perhaps acetylcarnitine can even act as a neurotransmitter itself.
   Those who take carnitine pills notice an increase in physical energy levels, but not as much mental energy. acetylcarnitine has a significantly more immediate and noticeable mental effect than carnitine.

Acetylcarnitine research shows:
In aging rats, chronic administration of this brain nutrient increases cholinergic synaptic transmission and consequently enhances learning capacity. The memory of aging rats is rejuvenated by giving them a combination of acetyllcarnitine and lipoic acid. Another potent free radical scavenger is carnosine product.

Potential Benefits of acetylcarnitine according to published studies:
Some patients with multiple sclerosis are helped by acetyl carnitine, which reduces their fatigue.
Acetylcarnitine is a promising treatment for those with diabetic neuropathy
May reduce alcohol-induced cellular damage to organs.
May be helpful in geriatric patients with mild depression.
Acetylcarnitine improves the function of mitochondria, the organelles within cells that are involved in energy production.
Is more effective than tamoxifen in the therapy of acute and early chronic Peyronie's disease.
May help individuals with degenerative cerebellar ataxia.

Chronic fatigue syndrome
Exploratory open label, randomized study of acetyl- and propionylcarnitine in chronic fatigue syndrome.
Vermeulen RC, Scholte HR. Research Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Psychosom Med. 2004.
We compared the effects of acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine and both compounds on the symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). In an open, randomized fashion we compared 2 g/d acetylcarnitine, 2 g/d propionyl-L-carnitine, and its combination in 3 groups of 30 CFS patients during 24 weeks. Effects were rated by clinical global impression of change. Secondary endpoints were the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, McGill Pain Questionnaire, and the Stroop attention concentration test. Scores were assessed 8 weeks before treatment; at randomization; after 8, 16, and 24 weeks of treatment; and 2 weeks later. Clinical global impression of change after treatment showed considerable improvement in 59% of the patients in the acetylcarnitine group and 63% in the propionylcarnitine group, but less in the acetylcarnitine plus propionylcarnitine group (37%). acetyl carnitine significantly improved mental fatigue and propionylcarnitine improved general fatigue. Attention concentration improved in all groups, whereas pain complaints did not decrease in any group. Two weeks after treatment, worsening of fatigue was experienced by 52%, 50%, and 37% in the acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine, and combined group, respectively. In the acetylcarnitine group, but not in the other groups, the changes in plasma carnitine levels correlated with clinical improvement. Acetylcarnitine and propionylcarnitine showed beneficial effect on fatigue and attention concentration. Less improvement was found by the combined treatment. acetylcarnitine had main effect on mental fatigue and propionylcarnitine on general fatigue.

Impotence, erectile dysfunction, sexual dysfunction
Q. Does acetylcarnitine help Impotence?
   A. It is possible that regular use of acetylcarnitine may help erectile function in some users, but this nutrient is not specific to erection improvement as are other aphrodisiac herbs. For sexual enhancement, see Tongkat Ali website or yohimbe article.

Is there an acetylcarnitine study that combines this nutrient with an aphrodisiac herb called tribulus terrestris?
    We have not come across such a study. Most researchers have focused their attention with the use of
acetylcarnitine for Alzheimer's disease or cognitive enhancement.

Longevity, living longer
Q. Does taking acetylcarnitine have anti aging or longevity benefits?
   A. There is no research that can tell us whether using this supplement leads to antiaging benefits or a longer lifespan in humans. It is possible that high dosages could shorten lifespan and tiny amounts could be helpful. This is just a guess.

Sperm health
Combined treatment with L-carnitine, a popular dietary supplement, and acetylcarnitine, a related chemical, appears to improve sperm motility in men with fertility problems, according to a new study. In the study, 60 infertile men between the ages of 20 and 40 years were randomly selected to take a combination of L-carnitine and L-acetyl-carnitine or an inactive "placebo" for 6 months. In the medical journal Fertility and Sterility, researchers at the University of Rome led by Dr. Andrea Lenzi report that 2 months after the completion of therapy, men who took L-carnitine and L-acetyl-carnitine had increases in sperm concentration, forward movement, and total movement. The most significant improvements in sperm motility, both forward and total, were observed in men who had the lowest levels of moving sperm when the study began.

Weight loss
May be helpful for reducing excessive eating when combined with 5HTP 5-HTP

Availability of acetylcarnitine supplements over the counter, in health food stores
You will often find acetylcarnitine in these dosages
Acetylcarnitine 250 mg per capsule
300 mg
500 mg per capsule
Can be purchased at GNC, Walmart, Walgreen, Whole Foods, Amazon, iHerb

Food source
Is there any natural foods that contain this natural supplement in a natural form such as any types of vegetables, fruits or meats that you are aware of? Or, any foods that are supplemental to acetylcarnitine?   
    We are not aware of any foods that contain any substantial amount of acetylcarnitine. The best option is to take an acetylcarnitine pill, although there are many other supplements that are beneficial for memory and mental enhancement.

Acetyl carnitine product emails
Q. I recently bought creatine 700 mg and Acetylcarnitine 300mg. I forgot both in the car in a hot day for few hours. Are they still okay to use?
   A. it is difficult to know how high the temp was in the car, if it was over 100 degrees for many hours there may have been some changes to the chemical composition.

Suppliers
We recommend our following products to you. Any interest, please free to let us know. 1.3-Dimethylamylamine HCL 5-HTP L-Theanine Propionyl-L-Carnitine Resveratrol 98%. Best Regards Fred / Andrew Shanghai Waseta International Trading Co., Ltd RM. Golden Eagle Edifice B Minsheng Road, Pudong New Area, Shanghai, P.R. China